Glossary

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#

802.11 Wireless Standards – specifies an over-the-air interface between a wireless client and a base station, or between two wireless clients

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A

Absolute Pathname – the pathname of a file or directory that starts at the root directory of the file system

Absolute URL – a direct web address, beginning with either “http://” or “https://”

Active Cell – any cell that is selected and highlighted in the spreadsheet

add – a command that will add a program shortcut to your terminal so that you can run it as a command of its own

Additive Color System – Any color that the screen can display, which is specified as a mixture of just red, green, and blue light

Address Bus – tells devices where the data should go or is coming from

Adware – any software application in which advertising banners are displayed while the program is running

AFS (Andrew File System) – a distributed file system developed by Carnegie Mellon University that distributes, stores, and joins files on networked computers, making it possible for users to access information located on any computer in a network

AGP (Advanced Graphics Port) – a 32-bit parallel bus created to give a 3-D graphics card fast, direct access to the CPU

alt (alternate text) – a required attribute to the image tag that provides a readable description of the image should the image fail to load on the webpage

Anchor Tag – a tag that denotes the beginning and end of the clickable content for a link

Antivirus program/software – a program designed to protect your computer from possible virus infections

API (Application Programming Interface) – a set of protocols and tools used to build software applications

Attribute – specific additional information within a tag. Syntax: attribute=”value;”

Autofill – a functionality that allows the user to fill cells quickly with similar data and formulas

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B

Backup – a separate storage location (like an external hard drive, or a cloud-based drive) to save copies of important files in case something were to happen to the files in their original location

Binary – the language used by computers to interpret information, read as zeros and ones, and is considered base-2 (two)

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) – Used for hardware initialization and provides runtime services for the OS and supplemental programs

Bits (b) – one unit of memory

Blind Carbon Copy (BCC) – To send others a copy of the mail without the recipients in the To: or Cc: fields knowing about it, enter their email addresses here.

Bluetooth – establishes a short ranged wireless network between devices and a computer, or a similarly controlled device

Body Tag – the section of the document that contains everything that will be visible in the browser window as the contents of the webpage

BPL (Broadband over Power Lines) – a method of communicating over power lines that allows data to transmit at a higher frequency

Bus Network – a set of clients are connected via a single shared connection line

Buyware – a software that can be purchased for the full software price, and, by opening it, you are the owner of the license

Bytes (B) – the smallest group of bits processed by a computer. One byte = 8 bits

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C

Cache – a storage mechanism used to help programs access data or instructions more efficiently than searching and reading information from the disk itself

Carbon Copy (CC) – To send others a copy of the mail, enter their email addresses here

CardBus – an older PCMCIA standard laptop expansion slot

Cascade Style Sheets (CSS) – a way of overriding the browser’s default display style by importing or linking a stylesheet to an XHTML document

cd (change directory) – a command that changes the current working directory, or location, in the file system

Cell – the intersection of a row and a column in a spreadsheet

Cell Addressing – naming a cell by something other than its row/column cross-section

Cell Referencing – identifying a cell by its row/column cross-section, and calling it within a formula or function

Chaining – a method of executing multiple commands via one line in the terminal by separating the commands with a semicolon ;

Child Node – a file or directory housed within another directory

Class Selector – a selector within a stylesheet that selects items based on their assigned class, which is used for a collection of elements within an XHTML document

Classic Relationship – the client machine relies on information provided by the server

clear – a command that seemingly clears the terminal window by pushing everything previously printed up and out of the window pane

CLI (Command Line Interface) – an interface that works through a command line via a keyboard, and it generally does not display graphics or utilize the mouse

Client – the requesting agent that interacts with a server. It can be a PC, workstation, or another server

Coaxial Cable – a cable with a single copper conductor wire at its center, and a plastic layer that provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield that blocks outside interference

Command – short character combinations that a computer is programmed to understand and execute

Concentrator – manages and controls all functions of the network, and acts as a repeater for the network

Conditional Function – a function that uses logic to perform calculations on a cell or range

Continuous Range – a group of active cells that are all adjacent to each other

Control Bus – coordinates activity between various devices to prevent data collision

cp (copy) – a command that makes a copy of a file and saves it to another location

CPU (Central Processing Unit) – also called the “processor”, is the brain of the computer – it controls all the logic for the computer or device

CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) – a collision detection and prevention method used to ensure proper data communication in a bus network

CTRL + C – press these two keys to abort an application or process running in terminal and return to the command prompt

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D

Data – information stored in a cell

Data Bus – allows data to flow between devices

Data Cell Tag – a tag that creates a cell within a table row, which is intended to display as data

Decimal – the form in which numbers are usually written, read as zeros, ones, twos, threes, fours, fives, sixes, sevens, eights, and nines, and is considered base-10 (ten)

Deleted Text Tag – a formatting tag used to denote that certain words or phrases within a paragraph (or any chunk of text) have been replaced or are otherwise defunct. By default, the browser displays deleted text with a line through it

Device Drivers – individual pieces of software that control each piece of hardware, or device

DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) – automatically assigns dynamic (changing) IP addresses from a list of available addresses

Display Port – a port that carries video, audio, and USB data

Div Tag – a structural tag used as a container for grouping sections of the webpage

DNS (Domain Name System) – a system that allows you to use words (domain names) to access a website instead of the actual IP address. Also known as Domain Name Server

DOCTYPE (Document Type Declaration) – a special instruction that warns the web browser that all the following text should be interpreted as HTML

DOS (Disk Operating System) – a 16-bit OS that does not support multiple users or multitasking

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – a broadband internet service that provides the user with an Ethernet connection

DVI (Digital Visual Interface) Port – a port used for video on newer monitors

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E

E-mail (electronic mail) – a form of communicating via the Internet. NC State uses Gmail for its email system

E-mail Address – the address used so the email servers know where things are going to and coming from – like a mailing address for the Internet. Your NC State email address is your UnityID@ncsu.edu

e-mail link – a link that allows the user to send an email to the assigned email recipient

Emphasized Text Tag – a formatting tag used to emphasize certain words or phrases within a paragraph or any chunk of text. By default, the browser displays emphasized text as italic

Ems – a unit of distance that approximates the width of the letter ‘M’ (the widest character in the English alphabet) in the font size of the containing element (or the browser’s default font size, if no font size is defined for the containing element)

Ethernet – (ether + network) a system for linking computers and other devices to a local area network

exFAT (Extended File Allocation Table) – a file system that is used primarily in flash storage applications and SD cards

Expansion Slot – an opening in a computer where a circuit board can be inserted to add new capabilities to the computer

ExpressCard – the PCMCIA standard laptop expansion slot

EXT# (Extended File System #) – a file system for Linux OS that uses journaling for file indexing, where the # indicates the version of EXT

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F

FAT (File Allocation Table) – a file system for Windows OS that uses a file allocation table for file indexing

Fiber Optic – uses pulses of light that can travel at the speed of light for long distances inside small strands of translucent fibers. Around the translucent fibers is a plastic coating, then Kevlar fibers for protection, and an outer Teflon or PVC coating

File Extension – a set of characters located at the end of the file name that allow the computer’s operating system to know what application software should be used to open the file

File System – a methodology by which data and information are stored on storage devices, making them easily retrievable

File Tree – a system of directories (folders) and files

Firewall – Controls communication authorizations to or from a computer or network

Firewire (IEEE 1394) – an older port developed by Apple that supports high-speed data transfer and can connect up to 63 external devices

Format – style applied to change the appearance of the data, cells, and spreadsheet

Formatting Tags – XHTML tags that apply stylistic attributes to the content they surround

Formula – an equation made of data, operators, and occasionally a function

Freeware – a software written and distributed by an individual or company without the expectation or requirement of compensation

fs (file system) – a command that allows you to inspect and modify the access rights of your AFS space

fs la (list access) – a command that allows you to list the access rights that are currently assigned in a particular directory

fs lq (command) – a command that prints to the terminal window your available and used amount of disk space

fs mkm (make mount) – a command that allows you to mount a backup of your home directory

fs rmm (remove mount) – a command that unmounts the backup directory

fs sa (set access) – a command that allows you to modify the access settings of a particular directory

Function – a programmed equation preset into the spreadsheet software to calculate data more efficiently

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G

Gmail – the official email server for the University, provided by Google

Gmail Filters – a function that allows you to automatically sort emails into different labels based on specific requirements

Gmail Labels – a folder system that allows you to sort and organize similar emails

Google Calendar – a virtual calendar associated with your Gmail account where you can create, invite, and share events

Google Docs – a word processing program connected to Google Drive account

Google Drive – a cloud-based drive used for storing files and making them accessible from virtually anywhere

Google Hangouts – a video chat application within Gmail

Graph – a graphical representation of a set of data

GUI (Graphical User Interface) – an interface that displays full graphics and allows fully use of the mouse and keyboard

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H

Hard Drive – stores the computer’s operating system, individual applications, and stored files internally, rather than loading data from discs each time the computer is started

Hardware – the tangible, physical aspects of computers

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) Port – a higher-end video port that also handles audio input/output

Head Tag – the section of the webpage used to define biographical data about the webpage

Header Cell Tag – a tag that creates a cell within a table row, which is intended to display as a title

Heading Tag – a text tag that creates headers and sub-headers to define the sections of the webpage

Hexadecimal (hex) – a positional number system of base 16, which can be used to represent colors

HFS Plus (Hierarchical File System) – a file system for Apple OS X that uses a B-Tree for file indexing

Horizontal Rule – a text tag that inserts a horizontal rule, or line, across the current line of text

Host Name – the name of a computer system that can be accessed at a remotely

href (hyperlink reference) – a required attribute to the anchor tag that represents the URL destination of the link

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) – a markup language used for describing web documents

Html Tag – the first real tag of the html file that says which version of HTML is used in the file, and is not closed until the very last line of the document.

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) – the protocol used by the World Wide Web to transmit information and commands between servers and browsers

Hub – Central node that connects multiple devices, but cannot pinpoint another single device

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I

ID Selector – a selector within a stylesheet that selects an item based on its assigned ID, which is used for one specific element within an XHTML document

IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics) – a type of hard drive interface

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) – group that organizes wireless communication standards

Image Tag – a tag that embeds a digital photograph or visual graphic into the webpage

In-Line Styling – a type of styling applied directly to an element by adding it as an attribute to the element’s tag in an XHTML document

Inserted Text Tag – a formatting tag used to denote certain words or phrases within a paragraph (or any chunk of text) that have been inserted into a document (often to denote recent changes). This tag is often used as a way of displaying underlined text, because that is how most browsers display inserted text by default

IP (Internet Protocol) – routes other computers to a particular machine so that other computers can locate and send information to that machine

IPv4 (IP version 4) – an older standard protocol. Uses a 32-bit address (supports 232 addresses)

IPv6 (IP version 6) – the current standard protocol. Uses a 128-bit address (supports 2128 addresses)

ISP (Internet Service Provider) – a telecommunication company that provides services for accessing and using the Internet

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J

JVM (Java Virtual Machine) – an abstract computing machine that converts Java code into a language the machine can understand

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K

Kernel – a program at the core of the OS that sits between the user interface and the hardware and manages many tasks that happen within the computer

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L

LAN (Local Area Network) – a geographically small network consisting of nodes, computers, or other devices, usually found within the same building

Leaf – a directory not housing another file nor directory, or a file; an end of the file system

less – a command that displays the contents of a text file in the terminal window

Line Break Tag – a text tag that inserts a break in the current line of text

Link – a stand of text used to redirect the browser to a new webpage

List Item Tag – a tag that enters the item information for the list

ls (list contents) – a command that prints the contents of your current working directory, or the directory specified

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M

man (manual) – a command that displays the manual pages for the command specified

MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) – a network connected with a combination of routers and specialized switches normally owned by an ISP like a WAN, but has many features like a LAN

Meta Tag – a section within the head tag used to define various properties of the webpage

MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) – a wireless method that uses multiple antennas on both the receiving and transmitting ends of a connection to boost communication performance

Mini-Display Port/Thunderbolt 2 – ports used by Apple computers to transmit video signals, audio signals, and high-speed data transfer

mkdir (make directory) – a command that creates a new directory

Modem (modulator-demodulator) – a device that converts data from one technology to another 

Modem (RJ-11) – an older port that connects the computer to a network via a dialup connection

Monolithic Kernel – an OS architecture that entirely operates the OS

more – a command that displays the contents of a text file in the terminal window

mv (move) – a command that moves a file and saves it to another location

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N

NAT (Network Address Translation) – allows all the computers connected to a router to share a public IP address, and assigns unique private IP addresses to all the connected computers that are translated to the public address on the Internet

Network – allows computers and other devices to exchange data via telecommunication

Network/Ethernet (RJ-45) – a port used for networking on most modern computers

Network License – a special licensing scheme that allows network owners to use a network software, as opposed to one designed for an individual user, provided by the software company

Node – a directory or file in the file system

Nomad System – the NC State wireless network

Non-continuous Range – a group of active cells that are not all adjacent to each other

NTFS (New Technology File System) – a file system for Windows OS that uses binary tress for file indexing

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O

OS (Operating System) – a piece of software that controls the internal hardware of the computer

Operator – a symbol used in a formula or function to calculate data

Ordered List Tag – a tag that presents a list of items denoted by a series of numbers in order from smallest to largest

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P

P2P (Peer-to-Peer) Relationship – one machine acts as both the client and the server in relation to another machine

Paired Tag – a tag that surrounds the content it is defining by demarcating it with both opening and closing tags. Syntax: <tag> content </tag> 

Paragraph Tag – a text tag that represents a single, self-contained paragraph

Parallel (DB-25) – an older port primarily used for printers and scanners

Parent Node – a directory housing a file and/or directory

Pathname – the specific location of a file or directory within a file system

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Express – an expansion slot standard that uses a high-speed serial bus to transmit small pieces of data

Percentage – a unit of distance based off the containing element’s font size (or the browser’s default font size, if no font size is defined for the containing element)

Phishing – falsely claiming to be a legitimate company to scam the consumer

Pixel – a unit of distance based on a mathematical approximation of the smallest dot a computer screen can display

Plain-text – text that does not contain any implied formatting

Platter – the physical discs of a hard drive where data is stored

Power Port – a port that allows power to flow from a grounded power outlet, through a cord, to the computer

Process – an instance of a running program

Processor – short for “microprocessor”, is a silicon chip that contains a CPU

PS/2 – an order port used for the keyboard and mouse

pwd (print working directory) – a command that prints the absolute pathname of the current working directory to the terminal window

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Q

Quota – the amount of storage space reserved per unity account

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R

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) – a type of hard drive configuration (not interface)

RAM (Random Access Memory) – provides a storage location for data that the CPU can access and manipulate quickly, and it loses content when the computer is turned off

Range – a group of active cells

RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) – a protocol that enables the graphical user interface of the operating system of a remote machine to display on the actual machine in use

Relative Pathname – the pathname of a file or directory that starts at a directory specified by the shortcut used and/or your current directory

Relative URL – a path to a file relative to the current webpage location

Removable Disks – drives that allow data to be accessed from external and mobile sources

Repeater – a device that strengthens the signal of the communications as it travels over the appropriate medium

Ring Network – each node has two neighbors and are arranged in a circular configuration so that data can travel either clockwise or counterclockwise (but all in the same direction) around the ring

rm (remove) – a command that removes/deletes the file(s) and/or folder(s) specified

ROM (Read-Only Memory) – it does not lose content when the computer is turned off

Root – the beginning of the file system

Router – Controls the movement of data between networks

Rule – a property followed by list of values for that property within a stylesheet

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S

SATA (Serial ATA) – a type of hard drive interface

script – a command that logs everything that is typed/printed to the terminal window in a text file

SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) – a type of hard drive interface

Sectors – wedges that group together to form a track and contain a fixed number of bytes

Selector – a way of defining the scope of rules within a stylesheet

Self-Closing Tag – a tag where the start and end are the same tag, and the tag itself is the information being defined in the web document. Syntax: <tag/>

Serial (DB-9) – an older port primarily used to connect mice, joysticks, and modems

Server – a powerful computer dedicated to managing virtual resources

Shareware – a software distributed with a limited license before being required to purchase a full version of the software

Sound Port – a port, or set of ports, used for connecting headphones, speakers, and microphones

Span Tag – a structural tag used as an in-line container for grouping text 

Spreadsheet – an interactive array of rows and columns used for organization and analysis of data

Spyware – programming that is put in someone’s computer to secretly gather information about the user and relay it to advertisers or other interested parties

src (source) – a required attribute to the image tag that identifies the source of the image file by providing the file path

SSDs (Solid-State Drives) – use solid-state memory that emulates a hard disk drive interface to store data.

SSH (Secure Shell) – a program for logging into a network computer remotely, executing commands on a remote machine, and moving files from one machine to another

SSID (service set identifier) – a name used to identify a wireless network

Star Network – Network by which computers are connected by one central device known as a concentrator

Strong Text Tag – a formatting tag used to denote that certain words or phrases within a paragraph (or any chunk of text) are strongly important. By default, the browser displays strong text as bold

Student ID Number – the unique group of numbers designated for each student, staff, and faculty member – similar to a SSN for each person at the university

Subscript Tag – a typographical tag used to render text, which is slightly smaller with a lowered baseline

Superscript Tag – a typographical tag used to render text, which is slightly smaller with a raised baseline

Switch – Central node that connects multiple devices and can distinguish between devices

System Bus – the method by which data is communicated between all the internal pieces of a computer

System Call API – the abstraction that the kernel provides to allow software developers to build applications that are capable of running on different types of hardware

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T

Table Row Tag – a tag that creates a row within a table, which can be filled with cells

Table Tag – a tag that defines a container, which can have rows and cells to form a table of data

Tag – a keyword, or tag name, surrounded by angled brackets to describe the contents of a web document

target – an optional attribute to the anchor tag that allows the browser to open the URL in either a new tab or window

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – allows two hosts to establish a connection and exchange information

Title Tag – a section within the head tag used to specify the title of your webpage, which the browser will use to label the browser tab

Tracks – concentric circles that surround the entire platter

Tree Network – a collection of star networks arranged in a hierarchy (like a tree)

Trojan horse – a program that does not replicate nor copy itself, but relies on other “manual” methods of distribution

TUI/TLI (Text-based User Interface/Text Line Interface) – an interface that displays text only (usually with different colors) but allows mouse input instead of relying on a command language

Twisted Pair Cable (CAT#) – two independently insulated copper wires twisted together to form a cable, like the older telephone cables

Type Selector – a selector within a stylesheet that selects all XHTML tags on a page, which are of a certain type

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U

Unity ID – the unique username assigned to each student, staff, and faculty member

Unity Password – the password for the unity account

UNIX – an operating system designed to be used exclusively by programmers

Unordered List Tag – a tag that presents a list of items denoted by a series of bullet points

unzip – a command that decompresses zip files

USB (Universal Serial Bus) Port – a port used to connect most external devices and drives to the computer

USB Type-C Port – a new port used to support a smaller, reversible connector

User Interface (UI) – the interface between the user and the computer that determines the way an individual interacts with the computer

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V

VCL (Virtual Computing Lab) – a method of remotely accessing and using an NC State University machine

VGA (Video Graphics Array) Port – a port used exclusively for displaying video to a screen/monitor

Video Processor – a microprocessor focused on producing graphical output to a monitor

Virus – a program that replicates itself, usually by attaching itself to other files and programs

VLAN (Virtual LAN) – a network that allows nodes to be attached virtually to the LAN instead of physically

VPN (Virtual Private Network) – a network that uses the Internet to connect devices to a private internal network and securely transmit data between the user and the network

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W

W3C (World-Wide Web Consortium) Compliance – a standards organization tasked with developing standardized practices for web development

WAN (Wide Area Network) – a geographically larger network usually owned/maintained by a larger company

WEP (Wireless Equivalent Privacy) – a protocol used to authenticate and encrypt a home network

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) – the method of communication that uses the 802.11 wireless standard

Wi-Max (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) – a form of broadband internet operated over cell phone towers and is defined under the IEEE protocol 802.16

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) – a protocol used to authenticate and encrypt a home network

Worm – a program that makes copies of itself, but does not infect other programs

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X

X Protocol – a display protocol that primarily displays and manages UNIX graphical information

XFS – a high-performance file system for Linux OS that uses metadata journaling for a quicker crash recovery, and is the default file system for RHEL7

XHTML (eXtensible Hyper Text Markup Language) – a variant of HTML, used to define the document structure of text, images, and other elements for the web

XHTML Comment – a way to annotate the code of a web document without visually affecting the result in the web browser. Syntax: <!– Comment Text –> 

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Y

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Z

zip – a command that compresses files or folders into a smaller, more transferable file

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